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统考专升本英语语法之主谓一致

来源:广东专插本信息网 发布时间:2019/10/7 9:43:29 浏览数:
导读:英语是统考专升本的公共课之一,英语科目的知识点也比较繁琐。在此广东专插本信息网为考生总结出统考专升本英语语法之主谓一致的知识点,供考生参考。

英语是统考专升本的公共课之一,英语科目的知识点也比较繁琐。在此广东专插本信息网为考生总结出统考专升本英语语法之主谓一致的知识点,供考生参考。


统考专升本英语语法之主谓一致


在英语句子里,谓语受主语支配,其动词必须和主语在人称和数上保持一致,这就叫主谓一致。寻其规律,大致可归纳为三个原则,即语法一致、逻辑意义一致和就近一致原则。


一、语法一致原则


语法上一致就是谓语动词和主语在单、复数形式上保持一致。


1、以单数名词或代词、动词不定式短语、动名词短语或从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词用复数形式。


如:His father is working on the farm. / To studyEnglish well isnot easy. / What he said is very important for usall. / The children were in the classroom two hours ago. / Reading in the sun isbad for your eyes.


注意:由what引导的主语从句,后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式,但若表语是复数或what从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式。


如:What I bought were three English books. / What Isay and do is (are) helpful to you.


2、由连接词and或both … and连接起来的合成主语后面,要用复数形式的谓语动词。


如:Lucy andLily aretwins. / She and I areclassmates. / The boy and the girl were surprised when theyheard the news. / Both she and he are Young Pioneers.


注意:① 若and所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物时,它后面的谓语动词就应用单数形式。如:The writer and artist has come.; ②由and连接的并列单数主语前如果分别有no, each, every more than a (an) , many a (an)修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。如:Every student andevery teacher was in the room./ No boy and no girllikes it.


3、主语为单数名词或代词,尽管后面跟有with, togetherwith, except, but, like, as well as, rather than, more than, no less than,besides, including等引起的短语,谓语动词仍用单数形式;若主语为复数,谓语用复数形式。


如:Mr Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. /Nobody but Jim and Mike wason the playground. / She, likeyou and Tom, is very tall.


4、either, neither, each, every 或no +单数名词和由some, any, no, every构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待。


如:Each of us has a new book. / Everything aroundusis matter.


注意:① 在口语中当either或neither后跟有“of+复数名词(或代词)”作主语时,其谓语动词也可用复数。如:Neitherof the texts is (are) interesting. ②若none of后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单数;若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可以。


如:None of us has (have) been to America.


5、在定语从句时,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。


如:He is oneof my friends whoare working hard. / He is the only one of my friends whoisworkinghard.


6、如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数;如果它指集体的成员,其谓语动词就用复数形式。这些词有family, class, crowd, committee, population, audience等。


如:Class Four is on the third floor. /Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.


注意:people, police, cattle等名词一般都用作复数。如:The police are looking for the lost child.


7、由“a lot of, lots of, plenty of, therest of, the majority of + 名词”构成的短语以及由“分数或百分数+名词”构成的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词的数而定。


如:There are a lot of people in the classroom. / The rest of the lectureiswonderful. / 50% of the students in our class are girls.


注意: a number of“许多”,作定语修饰复数名词,谓语用复数;the number of“…的数量”,主语是number,谓语用单数。


8、在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致。


如:Therecomesthe bus./ On the wall are many pictures. / Such istheresult. / Such are the facts.


二、逻辑意义一致原则


逻辑意义一致就是谓语动词的数必须和主语的意义一致(因有时主语形式为单数,但意义为复数;有时形式为复数,但意义为单数)。


1、what, who, which, any, more, all等代词可以是单数,也可是复数,主要靠意思来决定。


如:Which isyour bag? / Which are your bags? / All is going well. / All havegone to Beijing.


2、表示“时间、重量、长度、价值”等的名词的复数作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式,这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整体。


如:Thirty minutesisenough for the work.


3、若英语是书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。


如:“The Arabian Nights”is an interesting story-book.


4、表数量的短语“one and a half”后接复数名词作主语时,其谓语动词可用单数形式(也可用复数。


如:Oneand a half apples is (are) left on the table.


5、算式中表示数目(字)的主语通常作单数看待,其谓语动词采用单数形式。


如:Twelveplus eight is twenty. / Fifty-six divided by eight is seven.


6、一些学科名词是以 –ics 结尾,如:mathematics, politics, physics 以及news, works等,都属于形式上是复数的名词,实际意义为单数名词,它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式。


如:The paper works was built in 1990. / I think physicsisn’teasy to study.


7、trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, 等词作主语时,谓语用复数,但如果这些名词前有a (the) pairof等量词修饰时,谓语动词用单数。


如:My glasses are broken. / The pair of shoesunder the bedis his


8、“定冠词the + 形容词或分词”,表示某一类人时,动词用复数。


三、就近一致原则


在英语句子中,有时谓语动词的人称和数与最近的主语保持一致。


1、当两个主语由either … or, neither … nor,whether … or …, not only … but also连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语一致。


如:Either the teacher or the students are our friends. /Neither they nor heis wholly right. / Is neither he nor they wholly right?


2、there be句型be动词单复数取决于其后的主语。如果其后是由and连接的两个主语,则应与靠近的那个主语保持一致。


如:Thereare two chairs and a desk in the room..


注意:Here引导的句子用法同上。


以上便是关于统考专升本英语语法的相关信息,英语属于公共科目,考生除了自行备考外,还可以报读考前学习班,有兴趣的考生可以咨询在线老师获取报名资料。想了解更多专插本考试资讯可以浏览广东专插本信息网站内其他文章。